This essential skills and knowledge project teaches children about compass points and four and six-figure grid references. They learn about the tropics and the countries, climates and culture of North and South America. Children identify physical features in the United Kingdom and learn about the National Rail and canal networks. They conduct an enquiry to prove a hypothesis, gathering data from maps and surveys before drawing conclusions.
Significant rivers of the UK include the Thames, Severn, Trent, Dee, Tyne, Ouse and Lagan. Significant mountains and mountain ranges include Ben Nevis, Snowdon, Helvellyn, Pen y Fan, the Scottish Highlands and the Pennines.
Significant physical features of the UK include mountains, rivers, islands, lakes and forests.
Human features can be interconnected by function, type and transport links.
Principle routes link major towns and cities across the country. Many principal routes terminate in London. Railway stations are sometimes linked to ferry interchanges and airports.
The environment produces natural resources. Humans use some natural resources to make energy. Some natural resources cannot be replaced, like coal or oil. They are non-renewable. Some, like wind or flowing water, are renewable sources of energy.
Renewable energy includes solar power, wind power, hydropower, geothermal energy and bioenergy.
Climatic variation describes the changes in weather patterns or the average weather conditions of a country or continent.
Countries nearer the equator are hotter and countries further from the equator are colder. Some countries have contrasting climate zones.
Physical features, such as mountains and rainforests, can affect the climate.
Land uses include agricultural, recreational, housing and industry. Water systems are used for transport, industry, leisure and power.
The canals in Britain are man-made waterways that were created during the Industrial Revolution to transport raw materials and goods around the country. Locks, tunnels and aqueducts are all features of canals. Canals declined when railways and roads developed but were conserved after the Second World War and are used for recreation and leisure today
The Tropic of Cancer is 23 degrees north of the equator and Tropic of Capricorn is 23 degrees south of the equator.
The tropics is an area of significance between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.
Fieldwork techniques, such as sketch maps, data collection and digital technologies, can provide evidence to support and answer a geographical hypothesis.
A hypothesis is a statement that is then proved or disproved by gathering and interpreting evidence.
The North American continent includes the countries of the USA, Canada and Mexico as well as the Central American countries of Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. The South American continent includes the countries of Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela, Uruguay, Ecuador, Bolivia and Paraguay.
Political maps show the locations of countries and cities. Physical maps show the locations of physical features.
Atlases often contain additional data about countries, such as their population and land height.
Cultural studies of a country include the language, religion and values of the people who originate from, or live in, a particular place.
An atlas is a collection of maps and information that shows geographical features, topography, boundaries, climatic, social and economic statistics of an area.
A six-figure grid reference contains six numbers and is more precise than a four-figure grid reference. The first three figures are called the easting and are found along the top and bottom of a map. The second three figures are called the northing and are found up both sides of a map. Six-figure grid references give detailed information about locations on a map.
When giving a four-figure grid reference, give the two-digit eastings first followed by the two-digit northings.
A four-figure grid reference locates a square on a map.
The four cardinal directions are north (N), east (E), south (S) and west (W), which are at 90° angles on the compass rose. The four intercardinal (or ordinal) directions are halfway between the cardinal directions: north-east (NE), south-east (SE), south-west (SW) and north-west (NW).
Directions can be given using cardinal and intercardinal compass points.
Create a detailed study of geographical features including hills, mountains, coasts and rivers of the UK.
Describe a range of human features and their location and explain how they are interconnected.
Describe how natural resources can be harnessed to create sustainable energy.
Explain climatic variations of a country or continent.
Explain ways that settlements, land use or water systems are used in the UK and other parts of the world.
Identify the location of the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn on a world map.
Investigate a geographical hypothesis using a range of fieldwork techniques.
Locate the countries and major cities of North, Central and South America on a world map, atlas or globe.
Study and draw conclusions about places and geographical features using a range of geographical resources, including maps, atlases, globes and digital mapping.
Use four or six-figure grid references and keys to describe the location of objects and places on a map.
Use the eight points of a compass, four and six-figure grid references, symbols and a key to locate and plot geographical places and features on a map.