This project teaches children about life in Britain after the Roman withdrawal. Children will learn about Anglo-Saxon and Viking invasions up to the Norman conquest.

Children will learn about the Roman Empire and its impact on Britain. They will gain historical perspective by placing their growing knowledge into different contexts: understanding the connections between local, regional, national and international history; between cultural, economic, military, political, religious and social history; and between short- and long-term timescales.


The influences of Roman civilisation on Britain include the building of roads, houses and villas with technology, such as underfloor heating; the building of forts and fortified towns; the use of language and numbers in the form of Roman numerals and the spread of Christianity.

Every significant historical event has a cause or a number of causes, such as the need for power and wealth, retaliation for past wrongs, the need to improve quality of life or the occurrence of natural disasters, such as earthquakes. The consequences are the outcomes of an event, such as changes in power, people being killed or displaced during war, improvements in quality of life or damage and destruction from a natural disaster.


Describe the ‘Romanisation’ of Britain, including the impact of technology, culture and beliefs.

Explain in detail the multiple causes and effects of significant events.


Ancient Civilisations

This project teaches children about the history of three of the world’s first ancient civilisations: ancient Sumer, ancient Egypt and the Indus Valley civilisation. Children will learn about the rise, life, achievements and eventual end of each civilisation.

Children will gain and deploy a historically grounded understanding of abstract terms such as ‘empire’, ‘civilisation’, ‘parliament’ and ‘peasantry’.


Historical terms include abstract nouns, such as invasion and monarchy.

Features of a civilisation include cities, inventions, vital water supplies, information in the form of writing, leadership, infrastructure, social hierarchy, arts and culture, trade, individuals, organised religion and nutrition.


Use more complex historical terms to explain and present historical information.

Misty Mountain, Winding River 

This project teaches children about the characteristics and features of rivers and mountain ranges around the world, including a detailed exploration of the ecosystems and processes that shape them and the land around them.

Children will understand geographical similarities and differences through the study of human and physical geography of a region of the United Kingdom, a region in a European country, and a region within North or South America.


A physical feature is one that forms naturally and can change over time due to physical processes, such as erosion and weathering. Physical features include rivers, forests, hills, mountains and cliffs. An aspect of a physical feature might be the type of mountain, such as dome or volcanic, or the type of forest, such as coniferous or broad-leaved.

A river is a body of water that flows downhill, usually to the sea. The place where a river starts is called the source. Tributaries are small rivers or streams that flow into larger rivers or lakes. Meanders are bends in rivers. The place where a river flows into the sea is called the mouth.


Describe and compare aspects of physical features.

Interconnected World

This essential skills and knowledge project teaches children about compass points and four and six-figure grid references. They learn about the tropics and the countries, climates and culture of North and South America. Children identify physical features in the United Kingdom and learn about the National Rail and canal networks. They conduct an enquiry to prove a hypothesis, gathering data from maps and surveys before drawing conclusions.



Significant rivers of the UK include the Thames, Severn, Trent, Dee, Tyne, Ouse and Lagan. Significant mountains and mountain ranges include Ben Nevis, Snowdon, Helvellyn, Pen y Fan, the Scottish Highlands and the Pennines.

Significant physical features of the UK include mountains, rivers, islands, lakes and forests.

Human features can be interconnected by function, type and transport links.

Principle routes link major towns and cities across the country. Many principal routes terminate in London. Railway stations are sometimes linked to ferry interchanges and airports.

The environment produces natural resources. Humans use some natural resources to make energy. Some natural resources cannot be replaced, like coal or oil. They are non-renewable. Some, like wind or flowing water, are renewable sources of energy.

Renewable energy includes solar power, wind power, hydropower, geothermal energy and bioenergy.

Climatic variation describes the changes in weather patterns or the average weather conditions of a country or continent.

Countries nearer the equator are hotter and countries further from the equator are colder. Some countries have contrasting climate zones.

Physical features, such as mountains and rainforests, can affect the climate.

Land uses include agricultural, recreational, housing and industry. Water systems are used for transport, industry, leisure and power.

The canals in Britain are man-made waterways that were created during the Industrial Revolution to transport raw materials and goods around the country. Locks, tunnels and aqueducts are all features of canals. Canals declined when railways and roads developed but were conserved after the Second World War and are used for recreation and leisure today

The Tropic of Cancer is 23 degrees north of the equator and Tropic of Capricorn is 23 degrees south of the equator.

The tropics is an area of significance between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.

Fieldwork techniques, such as sketch maps, data collection and digital technologies, can provide evidence to support and answer a geographical hypothesis.

A hypothesis is a statement that is then proved or disproved by gathering and interpreting evidence.

The North American continent includes the countries of the USA, Canada and Mexico as well as the Central American countries of Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. The South American continent includes the countries of Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela, Uruguay, Ecuador, Bolivia and Paraguay.

Political maps show the locations of countries and cities. Physical maps show the locations of physical features.

Atlases often contain additional data about countries, such as their population and land height.

Cultural studies of a country include the language, religion and values of the people who originate from, or live in, a particular place.

An atlas is a collection of maps and information that shows geographical features, topography, boundaries, climatic, social and economic statistics of an area.

A six-figure grid reference contains six numbers and is more precise than a four-figure grid reference. The first three figures are called the easting and are found along the top and bottom of a map. The second three figures are called the northing and are found up both sides of a map. Six-figure grid references give detailed information about locations on a map.

When giving a four-figure grid reference, give the two-digit eastings first followed by the two-digit northings.

A four-figure grid reference locates a square on a map.

The four cardinal directions are north (N), east (E), south (S) and west (W), which are at 90° angles on the compass rose. The four intercardinal (or ordinal) directions are halfway between the cardinal directions: north-east (NE), south-east (SE), south-west (SW) and north-west (NW).

Directions can be given using cardinal and intercardinal compass points.



Create a detailed study of geographical features including hills, mountains, coasts and rivers of the UK.

Describe a range of human features and their location and explain how they are interconnected.

Describe how natural resources can be harnessed to create sustainable energy.

Explain climatic variations of a country or continent.

Explain ways that settlements, land use or water systems are used in the UK and other parts of the world.

Identify the location of the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn on a world map.

Investigate a geographical hypothesis using a range of fieldwork techniques.

Locate the countries and major cities of North, Central and South America on a world map, atlas or globe.

Study and draw conclusions about places and geographical features using a range of geographical resources, including maps, atlases, globes and digital mapping.

Use four or six-figure grid references and keys to describe the location of objects and places on a map.

Use the eight points of a compass, four and six-figure grid references, symbols and a key to locate and plot geographical places and features on a map.