Maps, globes and digital mapping tools can help to locate and describe significant geographical features.
Countries are located within continents. Countries have capital cities and geographical features.
Geographical features created by nature are called physical features. Physical features include beaches, cliffs and mountains. Geographical features created by humans are called human features. Human features include houses, factories and train stations.
The crust of the Earth is divided into tectonic plates that move. The place where plates meet is called a plate boundary. Plates can push into each other, pull apart or slide against each other. These movements can create mountains, volcanoes and earthquakes.
A person’s carbon footprint is the amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere from their activities. People can reduce their carbon footprint by driving less, eating less meat, flying less and wasting less food and products.
Different types of settlement include rural, urban, hamlet, town, village, city and suburban areas. A city is a large settlement where many people live and work. Residential areas surrounding cities are called suburbs.
Services include banks, post offices, hospitals, public transport and garages. Land use types include leisure, housing, industry, transport and agriculture.
Excessive precipitation includes thunderstorms, downbursts, tornadoes, waterspouts, tropical cyclones, extratropical cyclones, blizzards and ice storms.
Hot weather can melt tarmac, dry land and encourage people to enjoy the outdoors. Wet weather can cause flooding and encourage people to take shelter. Windy weather can break branches and blow leaves, and discourage people from leaving home. Cold weather can cause slippery pavements, crack pipes and prevent everyday outdoor activities, but encourage outdoor play.
The term geographical evidence relates to facts, information and numerical data.
The Earth has five climate zones: desert, Mediterranean, polar, temperate and tropical.
Countries in Europe include the United Kingdom, France, Spain, Germany, Italy and Belgium. Russia is part of both Europe and Asia.
Europe is a continent in the Northern Hemisphere. It has over 50 countries (including transcontinental countries).
Latitude is the distance north or south of the equator and longitude is the distance east or west of the Prime Meridian.
The Earth is made of four different layers. The inner core is made mostly of hot, solid iron and nickel, and the outer core is made of liquid iron and nickel. The mantle is made of solid rock and molten rock called magma. The crust is a thin layer of solid rock that is broken into large pieces called tectonic plates. These pieces move very slowly across the mantle.
Counties of the United Kingdom include Derbyshire, Sussex and Warwickshire. Major cities of the United Kingdom include London, Birmingham, Edinburgh, Cardiff, Manchester and Newcastle.
A county is an area of land according to political divisions. Counties are governed by local governments.
Counties have distinct characteristics according to their size, population, industries, location and physical and human features.
A city is a large human settlement, where lots of people live and work. Significant cities of the UK include London, Birmingham and York.
Cities have distinct characteristics according to their size, population, industries, landmarks, location and physical and human features.
A four-figure grid reference contains four numbers. The first two numbers are called the easting and are found along the top and bottom of a map. The second two numbers are called the northing and are found up both sides of a map. Four-figure grid references give specific information about locations on a map.
The eight points of a compass are north, south, east, west, north-east, north-west, south-east and south-west.
Analyse maps, atlases and globes, including digital mapping, to locate countries and describe features studied.
Analyse primary data, identifying any patterns observed.
Classify, compare and contrast different types of geographical feature.
Describe the activity of plate tectonics and how this has changed the Earth’s surface over time (continental drift).
Describe the meaning of the term ‘carbon footprint’ and explain some of the ways this can be reduced to protect the environment.
Describe the type and characteristics of settlement or land use in an area or region.
Describe the type, purpose and use of different buildings, monuments, services and land, and identify reasons for their location.
Explain how the weather affects the use of urban and rural environments.
Gather evidence to answer a geographical question or enquiry.
Identify the five major climate zones on Earth.
Locate countries and major cities in Europe (including Russia) on a world map.
Locate significant places using latitude and longitude.
Name and describe properties of the Earth’s four layers.
Name, locate and describe some major counties and cities in the UK.
Use four-figure grid references to describe the location of objects and places on a simple map.
Use the eight points of a compass to locate a geographical feature or place on a map.